Influence of climate change on emerging pathogens and human immunity

The Egyptian Journal of Immunology
Volume 31 (2), April, 2024
Pages: 71 – 86.
Amira El-Far1, Noha Yousry1, Faten Abouelmagd2,3, Mohamed E. Elsheikh3, and Manal El Said3,4
1Department of Microbiology, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, (TBRI), Giza 12411, Egypt.

2Department of Medical Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt.

3General Medicine Practice Program, Department of Microbiology, Batterjee Medical College, Jeddah 21442, Saudi Arabia.

4Department of Microbiology & Infection Prevention, Control Unit, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute (TBRI), Giza 12411, Egypt.

Corresponding author:
Amira El-Far, Department of Microbiology, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, (TBRI), Giza 12411, Egypt.


Global warming can be defined as the detectable increase in average global temperature in the last ten years regarding frequency and intensity. Climate change represents a long-term detectable climatic variability. The climatic system of the earth is disrupted because of the continuous production of greenhouse gases, which raises the risk of the emergence and re-emergence of human pathogens. In this review, we aimed to present the different mechanisms of climate change that increase human/pathogen exposure, introduce the recent concept of disaster microbiology, and discuss the effects of climate change on zoonoses as well as the effects of climate change on antibiotic resistance and human health.

Climate change, Emerging Pathogens, Immunity, Global warming, Greenhouse gases

Date received:
16 October 2023; accepted: 28 February 2024



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